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Oganes E. Dilanyan
Urologist, MD, PhD

Bladder Stones

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In this article

Bladder stones is one of the manifestation of kidney stone disease, when due to many reasons stones start forming in the bladder. They may end up in the bladder after “falling out” of the kidneys or ureter or actually form in the bladder itself.  

Bladder Stones

“The urine flow is irregular, even with the urge is there the flow just suddenly stops”. “I constantly get up at night, but every time there is not much urine”; “Constant urge to urinate is driving me crazy”; “The bladder keeps getting inflames” … these are the complaints of my patients diagnosed with bladder stones. Some of them got to the bladder from the kidneys as sand initially and then increased in size, others formed inside the bladder itself due to disruption of urine outflow. 

Bladder stones removal


But regardless of the cause removal is always necessary. Bladder stones cause inflammation, damage the bladder mucosa and cause prostate inflammation in men. 
The main task of any urologist in this situation is not just to remove the stones but also remove the cause, be it benign prostatic hyperplasia, urethral stricture or kidney stone disease. Otherwise the chances of relapse are quite high.

Bladder stones symptoms

I have been treating kidney stone disease for over 14 years and have come across various symptoms of bladder stones.  Sometimes the stone is motionless and does not cause any symptoms. These stones are usually discovered accidentally during a routine ultrasound.

In other cases, the stones cause excruciating low abdominal pain, blood and puss in the urine, false urge to urinate and urine flow disruption. The stone simply blocks the urethra acting like a plug. The worst-case scenario is acute urinary retention. This is a medical emergency and one always call an ambulance as the patient will require emergency surgery.

Bladder tones causes

There are several different causes of bladder stones.

Kidney Stone disease: Stones falling out of the kidneys or the ureters into the bladder and resulting in stretching of the bladder.
Kidney Stone disease: Stones falling out of the kidneys or the ureters into the bladder and resulting in stretching of the bladder.
Main cause: Stone formation in the bladder due to urine outflow disruption caused by other conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or urethral stricture.
Main cause: Stone formation in the bladder due to urine outflow disruption caused by other conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or urethral stricture.
Stone formation inside of bladder diverticulum.
Stone formation inside of bladder diverticulum.

Diagnosis and treatment of bladder stones

The point of diagnosis is seemingly very simple: one needs to find the stones. But is it no less important to identify the cause of their formation and offer appropriate treatment to the patient. For example if the patient is suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia we will remove both the stones and the cause thus avoiding repeat formation of the stones.

Diagnosis and treatment of bladder stones

Bladder ultrasound

Most often the stones are identified during an ultrasound.  This method allows for identification of the stones and determination of their size. We also carry out kidney and prostate ultrasound in order to determine the cause of the stones.


The aim of this method is to get the patient to urinate into a container while the speed of urine flow and its volume is being assessed by a computer which allows us to determine in what way the urine flow is disrupted.


An x-ray type method which can precisely identify the number of stones as well as their size. Latest recommendations are that ordinary urography is replaced by CT scan of the pelvic organs.

Urine test

Simple urine test that allows to assess the presence of inflammatory elements – leucocytes as well as hidden problems of the urinary system.

Blood test

This is a standard test that allows us to rule out a number of conditions. Systematic inflammatory reaction being one of them.

Urine Culture

This test allows us to identify the type of bacterium and their sensitivity to antibiotics in order to prescribe the correct medication.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone,
but will withdraw in favour of such men as are engaged in this work.
Hippocratic oath

Bladder stone surgery

The old methods of “incising the stones” have long been forgotten. Now we have at least three different surgery options in our arsenal: 

1.    Removal of multiple bladder stones using minimal access

Stone removal is carried out via a small incision which is only 1,5-2 cm in size, this surgery is indicated in the presence of large or multiple stones. If the stone is too big we use special equipment to break it down into parts that are no bigger than 1 to 1.5 cm. 

2.    Breaking down the stones via the urethra using an endoscope.

This operation is carried out without any incisions and is carried out via the urethra using an endoscope. The stones are broken down into “dust” using a laser or ultrasound and are removed from the bladder using a special pump. 

3. Percutaneous paracentetic stone removal

In some cases, for example in the presence of the urethral stricture, it is impossible to gain access via the urethra. In this case cystocentesis is performed just above the pubic bone and an endoscopic tool is inserted into the puncture. The breaking up of the stones is done using a laser.

Our Advantages

Professional Approach: Up to date diagnostics methods of causes and complications of bladder stones.

Our team: Specialised science based endoscopic urology team.

Board of doctors for your safety, consisting of a urologist, cardiologist and anaesthetist.

Equipment: Endoscopic urology operating room equipped with modern Karl Storz equipment.

Comfort: no queueing or waiting for a consultation and premium inpatient facility.

Safety: we only use methods recommended by professional associations such as EAU and AAU.

Result: Removal of bladders stones and their causes. 

We are also GCP certified, which confirms we provide the highest standards of diagnosis and treatment. 

Our Guarantees

- We guarantee your safety by using modern and highest quality anaesthesia manufactured in Austria or France. 
- We DO NOT USE low quality equivalents of any drug which significantly lowers the risk of any complications.
- Use of Karl Storz endoscope guarantees successful laser treatment to all my patients. 
- Andrology surgical work placements in Austria and Italy together with extensive experience in andrology surgery ensure absence of complications. 
- We DO NOT REFER our patients to unknown clinics for follow up and further treatment and provide outpatient follow up as well as inpatient treatment.

Every patient is provided with a discharge summary with detailed recommendations and an official sick leave certificate
Information for foreign patients:

If you require treatment of bladder stones in Moscow please contact us. We will arrange admission to hospital on the day of your arrival and carry out all necessary investigations and tests and carry out surgery on the following day.  You will be able to return home two days later.