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Oganes E. Dilanyan
Urologist, MD, PhD


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Cystoscopy: examination of the bladder

As I deal with many conditions of the bladder I often refer patients to a procedure called cystoscopy. This is because a visual investigation of the bladder mucosa helps arrive at a correct diagnosis and work out suitable treatment tactics. Successful treatment of conditions such as chronic cystitis, interstitial cystitis, polyps and bladder cancer, bladder diverticulum and bladder stones and urinary incontinence is simply impossible without this investigation.

Pain free investigation under sedation


Rigid Cystoscopy – we perform this using Swiss made cystoscopes by Karl Storz, which allows us to obtain maximally precise information. 
Flexible cystoscopy – when dealing with difficult diagnostics cases we use a “soft” guided fibre cystoscope «Olympus».
Bladder biopsy – is taking a small mucous layer sample, no bigger that 1mm in size and sending it for histological investigation which allows us to determine a precise diagnosis.

Cystoscopy is carried out using a special instrument called a cystoscope. Basically, it is a thin tube which has an incorporated optical system which transmits the image to the screen. The instrument is inserted into the bladder through the urethra and an investigation of all parts of the bladder is carried out.

I routinely use the newest German made cystoscopes by Karl Storz and soft Olympus cystoscope which provide very clear high-quality imaging. We also always take photos for diagnosis objectivization purposes.

“Doctor, I had this procedure once before already. It was terribly painful and frightening. Please can we do without cystoscopy this time?”
Patient’s comment

Bladder cystoscopy in men and women: is it painful?

Even inserting a flexible cystoscope into the urethra is quite a painful procedure. This is why I recommend that this investigation is done under sedation. Sedation puts the patient into a state of medicated sleep which allows them not to feel any pain during the procedure. While ensuring pain free experience and comfort during the procedure the sedation is safe at the same time.
Professional licenced anaesthetic service in our clinic guarantees anaesthetic safety by using European equipment and safe tried and tested medication manufactured abroad.

“Do you suspect that I might have bladder cancer? No? Why do a bladder biopsy then? As far as I know it is only done for cancer patients!”

Bladder biopsy

There is a common misconception that biopsy is only done when a tumour is suspected. During bladder biopsy small samples of bladder mucosa are taken and analysed under the microscope. And while this procedure is irreplaceable when using it in the presence of tumours it is also very important when we need to understand the nature of inflammation in order to treat conditions like cystitis, polyps of the bladder, leucoplakia and metaplasia.
Precise documentation of histological reports guarantees the highest quality of the test. If necessary second opinion consultation is sought from our histology specialists colleagues in Austria and Germany using the photographs taken during the investigation.

Information for foreign patients:

If you require cystoscopy in Moscow please contact us. We will arrange your admission to hospital on the day of your arrival and carry out the investigation on the same day. You will be able to travel back home in the evening.